Modeling preharvest Cyclospora cayetanensis sampling and testing for various water and produce sampling plans

Highlights Abstract As of August 2023, the two U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) official detection methods for C. cayetanensis are outlined in the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapters 19b (produce testing) and 19c (agricultural water testing). These newly developed detection methods have been shown to not always detect contamination when present at low levels. Yet, […]

Simulation Evaluation of Power of Sampling Plans to Detect Cronobacter in Powdered Infant Formula Production

Highlights Abstract Cronobacter is a hazard in Powdered Infant Formula (PIF) products that is hard to detect due to localized and low-level contamination. We adapted a previously published sampling simulation to PIF sampling and benchmarked industry-relevant sampling plans across different numbers of grabs, total sample mass, and sampling patterns. We evaluated performance to detect published Cronobacter contamination profiles […]

Leafy Green Farm-to-Customer Process Model Predicts Product Testing Is Most Effective at Detecting Contamination When Conducted Early in the System before Effective Interventions

Abstract Commercial leafy green supply chains often are required to have test and reject (sampling) plans for specific microbial adulterants at primary production or finished product packing for market access. To better understand the impact of this type of sampling, this study simulated the effect of sampling (from preharvest to consumer) and processing interventions (such […]

A Validated Preharvest Sampling Simulation Shows that Sampling Plans with a Larger Number of Randomly Located Samples Perform Better than Typical Sampling Plans in Detecting Representative Point-Source and Widespread Hazards in Leafy Green Fields

Abstract Commercial leafy greens customers often require a negative preharvest pathogen test, typically by compositing 60 produce sample grabs of 150 to 375 g total mass from lots of various acreages. This study developed a preharvest sampling Monte Carlo simulation, validated it against literature and experimental trials, and used it to suggest improvements to sampling […]