Aggregative Soil Sampling Using Boot Covers Compared to Soil Grabs From Commercial Romaine Fields Shows Similar Indicator Organism and Microbial Community Recoveries

Highlights Abstract Aggregative boot cover sampling may be a more representative, practical, and powerful method for preharvest produce soil testing than grab sampling because boot covers aggregate soil from larger areas. Our study tests if boot cover sampling results reflect quality and safety indicator organisms and community diversity of grab sampling. We collected soil samples […]

Modeling preharvest Cyclospora cayetanensis sampling and testing for various water and produce sampling plans

Highlights Abstract As of August 2023, the two U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) official detection methods for C. cayetanensis are outlined in the FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Chapters 19b (produce testing) and 19c (agricultural water testing). These newly developed detection methods have been shown to not always detect contamination when present at low levels. Yet, […]

Multi-Spectral Sorting Based on Visibly High-Risk Kernels Sourced from Another Country Reduces Fumonisin and Toxigenic Fusarium on Maize Kernels

Highlights Abstract Fusarium species infect maize crops leading to production of fumonisin by their toxigenic members. Elimination of microbes is critical in mitigating further post-harvest spoilage and toxin accumulation. The current study investigates the efficacy of a previously described multi-spectral sorting technique to analyze the reduction of fumonisin and toxigenic Fusarium species found contaminating maize kernels in Kenya. […]

Simulation Evaluation of Power of Sampling Plans to Detect Cronobacter in Powdered Infant Formula Production

Highlights Abstract Cronobacter is a hazard in Powdered Infant Formula (PIF) products that is hard to detect due to localized and low-level contamination. We adapted a previously published sampling simulation to PIF sampling and benchmarked industry-relevant sampling plans across different numbers of grabs, total sample mass, and sampling patterns. We evaluated performance to detect published Cronobacter contamination profiles […]

Spectral kernel sorting based on high-risk visual features associated with mycotoxin contamination reduces aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in maize from Ghana

Highlights Abstract Rapid single kernel analysis could enable physical sorting to remove mycotoxins from bulk grains. The purpose of this study was to use visual characteristics previously associated with aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize kernels to calibrate a multi-spectral sorter and then sort mycotoxin contaminated lots. A total of 76 corn samples were collected from poultry farmers in the Dorma-Ahenkro area, Ghana. Paired […]

Leafy Green Farm-to-Customer Process Model Predicts Product Testing Is Most Effective at Detecting Contamination When Conducted Early in the System before Effective Interventions

Abstract Commercial leafy green supply chains often are required to have test and reject (sampling) plans for specific microbial adulterants at primary production or finished product packing for market access. To better understand the impact of this type of sampling, this study simulated the effect of sampling (from preharvest to consumer) and processing interventions (such […]

Efficacy of electron beam irradiation in reduction of mycotoxin-producing fungi, aflatoxin, and fumonisin, in naturally contaminated maize slurry

Highlights Abstract Maize is a staple food in Kenya. However, maize is prone to fungal infestation, which may result in production of harmful aflatoxins and fumonisins. Electron beam (eBeam) food processing is a proven post-harvest technology, but published literature is rare on the ability of eBeam to reduce mycotoxins in naturally contaminated maize samples. This study evaluated the efficacy of […]

A Validated Preharvest Sampling Simulation Shows that Sampling Plans with a Larger Number of Randomly Located Samples Perform Better than Typical Sampling Plans in Detecting Representative Point-Source and Widespread Hazards in Leafy Green Fields

Abstract Commercial leafy greens customers often require a negative preharvest pathogen test, typically by compositing 60 produce sample grabs of 150 to 375 g total mass from lots of various acreages. This study developed a preharvest sampling Monte Carlo simulation, validated it against literature and experimental trials, and used it to suggest improvements to sampling […]

Perspective: Challenges with product testing in powdered infant formula

Abstract Right now, many concerned parents are probably thinking, how could Cronobacter sakazakii get through the powdered infant formula (PIF) production system? Shouldn’t a food safety monitoring system find such a serious problem? Aren’t those products tested before arriving on shelves? And the very challenging answer is yes, these products were likely tested with a standardized sampling and […]

Single kernel aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination distribution and spectral classification in commercial corn

Highlights Abstract Aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination distribution in corn is non-homogeneous. Therefore, bulk sample testing may not accurately represent the levels of contamination. Single kernel analysis could provide a solution to these problems and lead to remediation strategies such as sorting. Our study uses extensive single kernel aflatoxin (AF) and fumonisin (FM) measurements to (i) demonstrate skewness, calculate weighted sums […]